Below is a map entitled, "A Plan of the Route from Halifax to River du Loup on the St.Lawrence, with Tables of Distances from Halifax to Quebec," by Joseph Bouchette, Surveyor General of Lower Canada. The map was published by W. Faden in London in August 1815.
The map shows the route from Halifax, in Nova Scotia, through the St.John River valley, to Rivière-du-Loup on the St.Lawrence River in Lower Canada. This was for the British a militarily strategic route, the most direct (and in the winter, the only) line of communication between the important, ice-free seaport of Halifax, and Quebec, Montreal, Kingston and other points in Lower and Upper Canada.
In 1813, this was the route taken by the 104th Regiment of Foot in their winter trek from Fredericton to Kingston, Upper Canada. This march took place during the War of 1812; the Regiment was sent to protect Upper Canada (now Ontario) from US invasion.
The map shows the River, and points of interest and strategic importance along the river. In the area of today's Madawaska , Victoria, and Aroostook Counties, the map shows the military post at Grand Falls (then called Great Falls), the "Indian Village," "RVB Settlers" (veterans of the 10th Royal Veteran Battalion, who had been granted land by the British government) on the Salmon River and on the Madawaska River. Also of interest is that the home of Simon Hébert is marked by name on the map, indicating his position in the Madawaska Settlement as one of the leading citizens in the eyes of the outside.
Although this map does not draw a border between Maine and the British provinces, it does show points along the line agreed to in 1797, from the mouth of the St.Croix to its source. From there, a line is drawn due north, but is not shown as the border. The words "District of Maine" (Maine was not yet a state, but still a part of Massachusetts) stretches just above the mouth of the Aroostook (Ristook) River, while "Washington County" stretches just to the south bank of the River. The entire St.John River valley seems to be included in New Brunswick, reflecting British claims.
This map is of interest primarily because it shows this militarily important route through the Madawaska Settlements. Below is the entire map; clicking on it will bring you to an enlarged view. Below that is a detail from the map showing the area from Grand Falls to the Madawaska River, and the western reaches of the St.John River.
This map is from the collection of the Bibliothèque Nationale du Québec, and is online at http://bibnum2.banq.qc.ca/bna/cargeo/htm/t118.htm (Their entire excellent online collection of historical maps is accessible at: http://bibnum2.banq.qc.ca/bna/cargeo/accueil.htm .)
Click on the map for an enlarged view
Detail from the 1815 Bouchette Map, focusing on the Madawaska settlements of the upper St.John River valley:
Return to the Upper St.John River Valley page
Last revised 27 Nov 2006